Soto Betawi

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Salah satu menu favorit keluarga, kalau di Bandung kita jajan di soto betawi ‘999’ yang di depan bengkel dekat SMA 24 Ujung berung, apa masih ada ?
Setelah memperhatikan dagangan & ngobrol dg mang 999, dan coba-coba resep di internet, jadilah soto betawi ala mang 999. Kelihatannya ribet, dengan sering mencoba insyaAllah tidak ribet :)  Mangga bagi yang ingin memulai jualan soto betawinya, bisa dipake juga coba-coba eksperimen resep ini, siapa tahu cocok :)

Bahan:
3/4 kilo daging sapi, daging saja, atau daging dg sedikit sekali lemak
1/4 atau 1/2 kilo jerohan, pilih sesukanya, cuci bersih, rebus terpisah dg daun salam. Kalau tidak suka jerohan, daging saja 1 kilo.

catatan: isi soto betawi ini bisa macam-macam, bisa juga dg kaki sapi, kaki kambing, serba kambing, dan sejenisnya.

200 cc santen kotakan
500 cc susu segar kotakan
1500 cc air biasa

Bumbu:
Bawang merah, 4-5 butir, tapi kalau bawang merah di Blnd yg guede itu saya pake 1 butir
Bawang putih 5-7 siung
Ketumbar 1 sdm
Pala 1/2 sdt
Jinten 1/2 sdt
merica 1/2 sdt
Daun salam 1-2 lembar
Sereh 1 batang
Jahe 2 ruas jari
garam secukupnya
dikasih kaldu blok/penyedap atau tidak suka2 saja

cengkeh 5-10 butir biar wangi

Tambahan untuk penyajian:
daung bawang iris untuk taburan
tomat segar nanti diiris
kentang dibelah/iris, digoreng nanti untuk ditambahkan
emping goreng untuk taburan
Ghee atau minyak samin
bawang goreng kalau punya, engga jg gpp :)
sambel cabe, cabe rawit rebus dulu, di blender
kecap manis kalau suka, jeruk sambel atau jeruk nipis

Cara Membuat:

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Summary Convergence and divergence in the World economy

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The Solow model predicted convergence and higher growth rates for lagging countries. How did economists justify the empirical evidence that catch-up by lagging countries was not happening at the rate predicted by Solovian growth?

Neo-classical reasoning would predict that the poorer countries would catch up with the richer countries due to diminishing returns on reproducible capital.

Poor countries tend to have low ratios of capital to labor, and consequently have high marginal products of capital. Therefore, they tend to grow at relatively high rates.

According to Gerschenkron (1962), catch-up by poor countries is not automatic, but requires a significant amount of effort and institution building. Later on, Ohkawa and Rosovsky (1973) coined the term ‘social capability’ “to designate those factors constituting a country’s ability to import or engage in technological and organizational progress”. As important factors of social capability, Abramovitz (1986) indicates technical competence, and political, commercial, industrial, and financial institutions. Consequently, an important argument made by Abramovitz is the following: because technologies are shaped by the environment in which they develop, countries that differ much from the leader country in factor supply, market size, etc. may sometimes find it difficult to apply leader country technology. This latter is referred to with ‘technological congruence’. When this congruence is low, it is hard for a backward country to adopt a technology from abroad.

It is thus hard for a country, which has a low social capability, to catch up with the leading country. This conclusion is not in line with the traditional neo-economical reasoning. Neo-classical reasoning would predict that the poorer countries would catch up with the richer countries due to diminishing returns on reproducible capital. This new reasoning however, would be in line with neo-classical theory, only when the country has enough social capability to imitate the leader country. In the case that a sufficient level of social capability is absent, a low initial GDP would not directly lead to a higher growth in the future. Or to explain the absence of convergence of growth rates of different countries in other words: the beneficial external effects of capital accumulation outweigh the detrimental consequences of increasing capital per worker (Scott, 1989). Thus, convergence between growth rates of different countries does not have to been as a given.

Trace the contribution of both neo-classical/ formal theories and of appreciative/evolutionary theories to the catch-up debate. Which are the key differences between the two approaches?

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Summary Model of Economic Growh

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The evolution of models of economic growth: which generations of models can be recognized starting from the seminal Solow model? Be able to explain the improvements brought by more recent models.

Neoclassical Model – Mankiw (Based on Solow Model)

The basic version of neoclassical model of economic growth was developed by Robert Solow (1956). In this model, the production function of an economy is the center piece, it defines relationship  between production factors and output.

In neoclassical models, the main production factors are capital and labour, the level of technology is considered as an exogenous factor that increases efficiency. Thus, the production function takes the form of Y = F(K,A*L), in which A is the level of technology and A*L is an ‘efficiency unit’ of labour.  If the production function is assumed to have constant returns to scale, then the output per efficiency unit (y = Y/A*L) is only dependent on the amount of capital per efficiency unit. Economic growth arises from the accumulation of capital. In the Solow model, the amount of capital per efficiency unit (k = K/A*L) is governed by two opposing forces: investment and depreciation. As long as the production function is ‘well behaved’ the economy over time approaches a steady state, in which income per efficiency unit constant.

In the Solow model an economy reaches a ‘steady state’, which is independent of the initial conditions of an economy.  In this steady state, the level of income depends on the rate of savings and population growth; the growth of the level of income only depends on technological growth; therefore, sustained growth requires technological growth.

Herman Daly, one of the founders of the field of ecological economics and a leading critic of neoclassical economics,[1] defines a steady state economy as

…an economy with constant stocks of people and artifacts, maintained at some desired, sufficient levels by low rates of maintenance “throughput”, that is, by the lowest feasible flows of matter and energy from the first stage of production to the last stage of consumption.”[2]

A steady state economy, therefore, aims for stable or mildly fluctuating levels in population and consumption of energy and materials. Birth rates equal death rates, and saving/investment equals depreciation.

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Summary Growth Accounting

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Growth accounting

Understand the aim and idea behind growth accounting: what can it do and what not?

Growth accounting is methodology as indirect way to measure technology and knowledge (also common with term technological progress) which are soft elements related to the efficiency of production function. They explain why a country is able to produce more than with the same input.

What can it do:

– a useful framework for assembling quantitative “facts” and quantified hypotheses about growth causality in a coherent way.

– Relevance for quantitative analysis of economic history, it has a certain explanatory power for each country and time period which in the past has often been based on loose description, untestable assertions, and literary modes of persuasion. This result can indicate likely and unlikely cause of growth or decline.

– It also has spurred large improvements in measurement at statistical offices.

What not/limitation:

– Strong assumptions of perfect competition (the way weighted)

– Productivity is taken as macro-phenomenon, no consideration of firm level heterogeneity

– Factor inputs are not independent

– No consideration for role of institution

– Poor conceptualization of technology, residual element is not reflection or a measure of technological change, but can be considered a measure of our ignorance (probably informal sector, government sector)

– It should also be emphasized that this approach deals only with proximate causality, and one has to look behind this to institutions, ideology, sociopolitical conflicts, degree of sophistication of policy,system shocks such as wars, and other historical accidents to get a fuller picture.

On the one hand he engages in establishing what he refers to as “ultimate causality,” which considers the importance of institutional and other unmeasurable factors, such as politics, CULTURE and economic polities, in enabling nations to grow and develop. This is in the grand tradition of Max Weber and Karl Marx. On the other hand, Maddison also attempts to determine proximate or technocratic causation where measurable variables such as output, labor, capital and land are technically considered in the causal schema. In the latter case, one can determine the statistical relationship between variables. But also, this correlation may be suggestive of causality and point to further research toward determining ultimate causality. Technical progress, although not quantifiable in any direct or exact manner, is approximated using a combination of proximate and ultimate analysis.

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Summary Fundamentals of Modern Economic Growth

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Course: Modern Societies in Transition 2010, Summary Seminar 9

What are the key characteristics of modern economic growth by Kuznets?

  1. high rates of growth of per capita product and of population
  2. the rate rise in productivity is high
  3. the rate of structural transformation of the economy is high
  4. rapid changes in the structures of society and its ideology
  5. increased propensity of developed countries to reach out to the rest of the world
  6. spread of modern economic growth is limited to small part of the world with the potential of modern technology

Kuznets lists six of them: the first two refer to economic and technical advance, the second two point to related changes in economic structure, society and ideology; the last two say something about the world distribution of growth.

 

Which role do the individual characteristics play in defining modern economic growth?

 

The first two which refer to economic and technical advance are marking quantitative characteristic of modern economic growth. The high rates of growth of per capita product and of population emerge as result of advancing technology which based on emergence of modern science. With rather stable ratio of labour force to total population and with average hours of work declining, it means still higher growth rates in product per man hour. This acceleration of productivity cause rapid shift in underlying production (economic) structure and also changes other aspect of society. Two important groups of effects are: (i) urbanization, internal migration from countryside to cities with its cost of social values, character of economic activity, denser life in city. (ii) Shift in relative shares in the economy of the specific population groups attached to particular production sectors. There might be a decline in relative position of one group after another for example farmers. Sectors as agriculture are well known to become relatively poorer during economic growth, because of the limited income elasticity of demand of agricultural good compare to industrial good.

The social structure also associated with rapid changes for example in family formation, in man’s views on his role and the measure of achievement. The dynamic drives of modern economic growth in the countries that entered the process ahead of others, meant a reaching out geographically, facilitated by major changes in transportation and communication, meant a continuous expansion to the less developed areas. At the same time less developed countries are in unfavourable position since they have not been able to achieve levels of modern economic growth comparing with developed countries. This has some causes. First, modern economic growth demand stable but flexible political and social framework, capable of accommodating rapid structural change and resolving conflicts it’s generated; developing countries are still struggling with such frameworks.  The second cause is that organizations in developed countries constructed policies towards other part of the world while introducing some element of modern economic growth, were malevolent for economic development as a whole, for example CAP, protection regulation. Other factor for continuing backwardness of developing countries is that although technological knowledge and innovations are available to leapfrog into modern economic, the stock of innovations most suitable to the needs of less developed countries is less abundant. Thus, we find continuity of unequal modern economic growth.

How do they relate to the properties of techno-economic paradigms and technological revolutions defined by Perez?

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Sebelum Summer

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Sebelum libur panjang Summer yang dinantikan, rupanya saya harus bersabar menyelesaikan beberapa agenda study yang cukup melelahkan, ingat satu hal saja, sabar, sabar, sabar, termasuk di dalamnya adalah sabar meniti, sabar menyelesaikan satu demi satu, sabar menanggung lelahnya, sabar menahan kantuk.. .wah wah.. kata sabar memang ajaib, dia berkesan lembut tapi berkekuatan besar… mungkin itu sebabnya Allah menjanjikan pertolongan dari sabar dan shalat. jadi sabar ya ibu.. hu hu hu hu…. (pengennya loncat saja ke summer break).

17 juni : submit portofolio (4 assignments) for qualitative research method, salah kalkulasi lagi, ndoweh..ndoweh.. kirain dikumpulin 17 juli, ternyata 17 juni

23 juni: exam modern societies in transition, ini kuliah yang ibu suka banget, cuman bacaannya itu segambreng *&^%$#$#@!!!!!!!!!!!!

1 juli: exam novel technology and human behavior, ini kuliah yg sebenarnya bagus, memotret teknology dr sisi filosofi dan psikologi,  tapi kelasnya ga menarik, karena ini makul wajib, baiklah kita harus bereskan ini.. lagi-lagi bacaannya itu exhaustive *&^%$#@!@!!!!!!!!!

5 juli: exam international negotiation, yang ini insyaAllah semoga bisa terselesaikan dg memuaskan.

dan satu essai philosophy: dualism body and soul.. tolonggggggggggg hu hu hu.. susah banget menulis argumentasi bahwa soul itu exist, dan body berbeda dengan soul. Lah salah sendiri, siapa suruh ngambil kelas philosophy… yach biarin lah, hitung2 melatih ibu agar mahir berargumentasi dengan jernih ya tak ting ;)

Bismillah bismillah… bismillah tawakaltu ‘alalLahhhh..

bagian dari tawakal adalah berjibaku bersungguh-sungguh dalam berusaha.

Karena abah juga sedang puncak-puncak load nya untuk menyelesaikan thesis, sama-sama sibuk, sepertinya ibu juga tidak bisa menuntut waktu untuk ibu bisa ngungsi ke library, jadi mungkin cara terbaik ya jadi kelelawar sampe selese exam, sementara siang ngasuh mba nana, dan ibu senantiasa mengharapkan pertolongan Allah, agar tanpa disangka-sangka ada saja cara yang memudahkan ibu untuk belajar, dan urusan mba nana beres. insyaAllah pertolongan-Nya dekat.

Freedom Flotilla

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Ah, lagi-lagi untuk mengingatkan bahwa sesama muslim bagaikan satu tubuh, satu terluka, yang lain ikut merasakan derita, untuk itu saya harus me-recall postingan yang ini

Akan segera tiba waktunya, Israel laknatullah alaihi..khaibar ya yahud jaisyu Muhammad saufa ya’ud..

Maafkan kami yang melupakan dan melalaikanmu.
Mungkin, sekarang, hanya doa yang teriring
Allohumma a’izzal islaama wal muslimiin
wanshuril mujaahidiina fiil iraq wa filistin
mujahidin fii masyariqil ardhi wa maghoribiha
Allohumma anzil ‘alayhim nashron ‘aziiza
Allohumma alfi bayna quluu bihim tsabbit aqdaamahum afrigh ‘alayhim shobron
wadfa’ ‘anil muslimiinal bala’ wal wabaa wal mihana maa dhoharo minha wa ma bathona
Allohumma arinaa fiihi ‘ajaiba qudrotika yaa arhamarroohimiin